Please start by reading Matthew 5:17-39
Christian line of reasoning says “Since Yeshua says He came to fulfill the Torah there is no reason for us to concern ourselves with it any longer.
To attempt to strengthen this argument the verses following verse 20 are interpreted to mean the Torah is deficient. By using the term “You have heard it said” suggests He is putting it aside with “But I say to you”.
Read from a perspective that the Torah is done away with it sure seems that
Yeshua is teaching against the Torah.
What does the term “fulfill” mean in Matthew 5:17?
Original language written in Hebrew or Aramaic not in Greek. The term used would be one of two terms. The term “KUM” which means to establish or to confirm. The term “MALET” which means “To be full” or “To make full”
What is the Septuagint text?
Written by the Rabbis around 200 BCE. Translation of the Hebrew text into Greek.
The Greek word that is used here is “PLEROO” which is used in this text found in Matthew 5:17 almost always translates from “MALEI: to make full”
If Yeshua used the term “MALEI” what might He have been saying?
Read 1 Kings 1:13-14
The aging David is being challenged to his thrown predecessor. Adonijah has declared himself king behind David’s back and Nathan the prophet is telling Bathsheba to tell David what is going on. These are the words of the prophet. The English word “confirm” is taken from the Hebrew term “MALEI” and is translated into Greek as “PLEROO.”
The meaning of the text is that the Prophet Nathan is strengthening Bathsheba’s words to David.
Read Jeremiah 44:25
Here is an example where both of the Hebrew terms are being used. “Your mouths and fulfilled” is translated from the term “MALEI,” “Go ahead and confirm” is translated from the term “KUM.” Here the confession of the mouth is fulfilled by the hands. This putting into action here is described as the fulfilling.
This must be the context of what Yeshua meant by fulfill for He admonishes us to put into action doing the commandments and becoming “Great in the kingdom of Heaven.”
It hardly seems likely that Yeshua would have told His disciples that the Torah has been fulfilled and declared invalid then tell them to do them to become great in the kingdom of Heaven.
But what about the second line of reasoning “You have heard it said… but I say unto you”?
This is often seen in the context of the Torah and the better way of Yeshua. A careful reading of the text will find that Yeshua uses more than the words of the Torah in His quotes. You will never find the term “Love your neighbor and hate your enemy” in the Torah at all. The simple answer is that Yeshua is contrasting the superficial meaning with the correct meaning in light of the entire Torah.
For example: The command “Honor your Father and your Mother” may simply mean to someone to honor them in words. However, in light of the whole of Torah it takes on a whole new meaning.
In what ways do we honor them?
The type of argument “You have heard it said… but I say unto you” used by Y-shua was a type of argument that was very common in the days of Yeshua. As He so often does He is speaking to His followers in a way that was understood by the people of the day.
In conclusion, it is not the Torah that Yeshua is calling deficient, but the manner in which it was being commonly taught in that day by some teachers.
Prime example is in Mark 7 with the rebuking of the washing of the hands.